1.2.4 Scala Future解读

Scala Future 异步工具类解读

将任务提交到线程池,来达到异步执行到效果

流程解析

先看一个 Future 用法的 例子

Future { println("start future") }

在 scala 的语法里,以下三种写法作用一样

Future {}
Future ()
Future.apply()

进入到 Future.apply 方法

def apply[T](body: =>T)(implicit @deprecatedName('execctx) executor: ExecutionContext): Future[T] =
unit.map(_ => body)

unit 为

val unit: Future[Unit] = successful(())

再看 successful

def successful[T](result: T): Future[T] = Promise.successful(result).future

进入到 Promise.successful()

def successful[T](result: T): Promise[T] = fromTry(Success(result))
def fromTry[T](result: Try[T]): Promise[T] = impl.Promise.KeptPromise[T](result)

进入到 Promise.KeptPromise apply方法

def apply[T](result: Try[T]): scala.concurrent.Promise[T] =
resolveTry(result) match {
case s @ Success(_) => new Successful(s)
case f @ Failure(_) => new Failed(f)
}

最终构造了一个 Kept 对象 Kept 是 Promise 的子类,Promise 是 Future 的子类

Kept[T] extends Promise[T]
Promise[T] extends scala.concurrent.Promise[T] with scala.concurrent.Future[T]

执行任务 body: => T 我们重回 Future.apply, 看看 unit.map(_ => body) 的逻辑

def map[S](f: T => S)(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[S] = transform(_ map f)

transform 是一个抽象方法,所以我们去看子类 Promise.transform 的实现

import scala.concurrent.Future
import scala.concurrent.impl.Promise.DefaultPromise
override def transform[S](f: Try[T] => Try[S])(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Future[S] = {
val p = new DefaultPromise[S]()
onComplete { result => p.complete(try f(result) catch { case NonFatal(t) => Failure(t) }) }
p.future
}

根据 DefaultPromise 类的定义

class DefaultPromise[T] extends AtomicReference[AnyRef](Nil) with Promise[T]
val p = new DefaultPromise[S]()
//实际上是初始化了一个 AtomicReference[AnyRef](空的list)
Nil = List.empty

接着我们看 DefaultPromise.onComplete 的实现, DefaultPromise 是 AtomicReference 无锁的对象引用的子类

final def onComplete[U](func: Try[T] => U)(implicit executor: ExecutionContext): Unit = dispatchOrAddCallback(new CallbackRunnable[T](executor.prepare(), func))
@tailrec
private def dispatchOrAddCallback(runnable: CallbackRunnable[T]): Unit = {
get() match {
case r: Try[_] => runnable.executeWithValue(r.asInstanceOf[Try[T]])
case dp: DefaultPromise[_] => compressedRoot(dp).dispatchOrAddCallback(runnable)
case listeners: List[_] => if (compareAndSet(listeners, runnable :: listeners)) ()
else dispatchOrAddCallback(runnable)
}
}

最终 runable.executeWithValue 执行,也就是 CallbackRunnable.executeWithValue 提交任务到线程池去执行

private final class CallbackRunnable[T](val executor: ExecutionContext, val onComplete: Try[T] => Any) extends Runnable with OnCompleteRunnable {
// must be filled in before running it
var value: Try[T] = null
override def run() = {
require(value ne null) // must set value to non-null before running!
try onComplete(value) catch { case NonFatal(e) => executor reportFailure e }
}
def executeWithValue(v: Try[T]): Unit = {
require(value eq null) // can't complete it twice
value = v
// Note that we cannot prepare the ExecutionContext at this point, since we might
// already be running on a different thread!
try executor.execute(this) catch { case NonFatal(t) => executor reportFailure t }
}
}

看callbackRunnalbe的定义, 函数onComplete的实现为 Promise.transform 的实现中的代码

result => p.complete(try f(result) catch { case NonFatal(t) => Failure(t) })

最后 p.complete 会返回一个 Promise 对象也就是 Future对象本身

def complete(result: Try[T]): this.type =
if (tryComplete(result)) this else throw new IllegalStateException("Promise already completed.")

总结

创建Future 交给 Promise 对象管理,并将线程池引用传入到 Promise 对象中 Promise 对 Future 里的任务进行调度执行

reference from